10th World Heritage USA International Symposium
April 18 – 21, 2007 in San Francisco, California

Balancing Culture, Conservation, and Economic Development

Heritage Tourism in and around the Pacific Rim
Hosted by The Presidio Trust
Organized by Architectural Resources Group


In Partnership with the Getty Conservation Institute and with support from
Samuel H. Kress Foundation, Fleming Family Trust, Global Heritage Fund,
American Express Historic Preservation Fund, and the World Heritage USA International Exchange Program
California Preservation Foundation   Chinese Historical Society of America
CyArk 3D Heritage Archive Network   National Park Service
National Trust for Historic Preservation (Western Regional Office)
Office of Historic Preservation, State of California
Page & Turnbull   San Francisco Architectural Heritage
San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park
University of California at Berkeley   Vallejo Architectural Heritage Foundation
Bryan Cave, LLP   College of Charleston   Crocker LTD   Cultural Site Research & Management
EDAW, Inc.   Hillier Architecture   Hisashi Sugaya (World Heritage USA Fellow)  Jan Hird Pokorny Associates   Page & Turnbull
Robins, Kaplan Miller & Ciresi    Robinson & Associates, Inc.   RTKL Associates
San Luis Obispo, California State Parks
Conference Venue – Golden Gate Club, Presidio
The Golden Gate Club on the grounds of the Presidio will serve as the conference venue for all presentations and panel discussions.  The Golden Gate Club, the Presidio’s largest meeting facility, is situated in a forest grove overlooking the Golden Gate Bridge.  The Presidio was founded in 1776 as a Spanish Imperial outpost, was part of the Mexican frontier from 1822 to 1846, served as a U.S. Army post from 1846 to 1994, and today is a 1,491-acre national park, part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.  The Presidio includes some 800 buildings and extensive cultivated forest and natural areas.  Today, the Presidio Trust works to preserve and enhance the Presidio as an enduring resource for the American public.
The Golden Gate Club is located on Fisher Loop within the Presidio grounds, approximately a 20-minute walk from the Argonaut Hotel.  Transportation (shuttle buses) will be provided between the Argonaut Hotel and the Golden Gate Club.  For conference attendees NOT staying at or near the Argonaut Hotel, there is also a regularly scheduled Presidio Shuttle that runs between the Embarcadero BART station and the Presidio during weekday morning and evening commuting hours.
Wednesday, April 18
Early arrivals, registration, and evening reception & lecture
Registration open at the Argonaut Hotel (conference hotel)
425 Jefferson Street at Hyde
5:30 pm
Welcome Reception & Public Lecture
Herbst Theatre, War Memorial Veterans Building, 401 Van Ness Avenue
$20 per registrant; $15 for students; $25 all others
8:00 pm
Public Lecture – included with registration, all others click here for tickets
Angkor at Crossroads: 15 Years as a World Heritage Site
John Stubbs (World Monuments Fund)
Tim Winter, and Simon Warrack
8:00 pm
Young Professionals Evening Mix and Mingle (following the lecture)
Crimson Lounge, 689 McAllister Street (below Indigo Restaurant)
$10 per person – light fare provided, cash bar available
Hosted by World Heritage USA International Interns
After the lecture, students and young professionals can mix and mingle with past World Heritage USA International Interns in a lounge atmosphere with plush seating and DJ grooves. Open to all conference participants.
Thursday, April 19
Presentations, World Heritage USA Scientific Committee Meetings, and Evening Reception
8:00 am Registration at the Golden Gate Club, Presidio
(shuttle buses available from the Argonaut Hotel)
Poster Session (concurrent, ongoing throughout the day)
Multi-media and poster exhibit illustrating conservation practices, tourist sites, restoration projects, and traditional building techniques.
9:00 am OPENING SESSION, including Welcome Remarks and Keynote Speaker
Golden Gate Club, Presidio
John Fowler
Chair, World Heritage USA Board of Trustees
Aaron Peskin
President, San Francisco Board of Supervisors
Michael Boland
The Presidio Trust
Keynote: Graham Brooks
(ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Committee)
Cultural Tourism in Asia and the Pacific Rim: Trends and  Challenges
10:30 amBreak
10:45 am Presentations at the Golden Gate Club, Presidio
Jane Clark Chermayeff (USA)
Preservation by Interpretation: A visitor-centered approach to protecting heritage sites
Tim Winter (Australia)
Scholarly Understanding of Global Visitors Experiences
Al Shacklett (USA)
Management of Large Numbers of Visitors – Visitor Capacity from a Consultant’s Perspective
12:30 pmLunch provided, World Heritage USA Scientific Committee meetings, Presidio Tour
2:00 pm Presentations at the Golden Gate Club, Presidio
Chester Liebs (USA and Japan)
Heritage Tourism and Sustainable Communities: Lessons from the Everyday Cultural Landscape of Japan
Chris Landorf (Australia)
Striking a Balance: Cultural Tourism and the Sustainable Management of Complex Heritage Sites
Cheryl Soon (USA)
The Essence of Place: Achieving Harmony for Economic Development and Tourism in a Heritage and Cultural Landscape (Hanalei District, Kauai)
3:30 pmBreak
3:45 pm Presentations at the Golden Gate Club, Presidio
R. Brooks Jeffrey (USA)
Authenticity and Hazards of Reconstruction
Jong Hyun Lim  (Republic of Korea)
Use of Ancient Memory as a Strategic Tool for Cultural Tourism: Reconstruction of the Hwangryong Temple Historic Site in Gyeongju Historic Area, Republic of Korea
Alexandra Arellano (Canada)
Choquequirao or the “other” Machu Picchu: Towards Sustainable Nature/Heritage Based Tourism Developments
6:30 pm
8:30 pm Welcome Reception
(buses depart from the Argonaut Hotel beginning at 5:45 pm)
$25 per registrant; $50 for all others
Chinese Historical Society of America Museum and Learning Center
(housed in the Chinatown YWCA building – designed by Julia Morgan)
985 Clay Street
Welcome remarks by Joe D’Allesandro
President, San Francisco Visitors and Convention Bureau
Join us for an evening of Dim Sum and Chinese fare at the Chinatown YWCA building, built in 1921.  The building is a magnificent architectural landmark designed by Julia Morgan, who designed hundreds of buildings from Hearst Castle to private homes.  The YWCA consists of a multi-tiered structure punctuated with three Chinese towers. Details include Chinese roof tiles, decorative wall panels, a cast-stone arch with leaded glazing, and a circular cast-stone window with steel sash. A traditional Chinese courtyard, graced with a garden and fountain, is shared with the adjacent YWCA Residence Apartments. All exhibits of the Chinese Historical Society of America will be open for participants to explore.
Friday, April 20
Field Tours and Evening Reception
All tours
leave from
the Argonaut
at 8:30 am
Space is limited so early registration is advised.  All tours include lunch. All tours are full day, except where noted. Please list tour preferences in order on the registration form; assignments will be made on a first-come, first-serve basis. Every effort will be made to give registrants their top-preference tour.
Tour 1: San Francisco Adobes (half-day)
Tour 2: Japantown and the Castro District
Tour 3: Angel Island, San Francisco Bay
Tour 4: Marin County Landscapes
Tour 5: Seacoast Fortifications
Mobile Workshop 1: High Definition Documentation at Fort Scott
Mobile Workshop 2: Vallejo and Mare Island
7:00 pm
9:00 pm
Reception and Silent Auction
$25 per registrant; $50 for all others
Aboard the Eureka (1890 steam ferryboat)
San Francisco Maritime National Historic Park, Hyde Street Pier at Jefferson (steps from the Argonaut Hotel)
Sponsored by the Global Heritage Fund
Step back in time for an evening on board the Eureka, built in 1890, originally designed as a freight-car ferry delivering trains from Sausalito to San Francisco under the name Ukiah. Re-christened as Eureka in 1923, she served as a passenger and automobile ferry. It is in that form which she maintains today. Jazz tunes will accompany the evening’s silent auction event.  Proceeds from the silent auction support World Heritage USA programs and activities.
Saturday, April 21
World Heritage USA Annual Meeting, Presentations, Poster Session
8:00 am
The World Heritage USA Annual Meeting is open to all World Heritage USA members.
Golden Gate Club, Presidio
World Heritage USA members may take part in the World Heritage USA Annual Meeting in the morning.  During the annual meeting, old and new business will be discussed, elections will be held for new members of the Board of Trustees, and the new Fellows will be introduced.
9:15 am
Poster Session (concurrent, ongoing throughout the day; open to the public 2-5 pm)
Multi-media and poster exhibit illustrating conservation practices, tourist sites, restoration projects, and
traditional building techniques.
9:15 am
Presentations at the Golden Gate Club, Presidio
Vincent Michael (USA)
Weishan Heritage Valley: Pre-tourism preservation and conservation planning in Yunnan, China
Jharna Joshi & Manoj Rajopadhyay (Nepal)
Sustainable Rural Tourism and Local Communities in Nepal
10:00 am
Kristal Buckley and Anita Smith (Australia)
Presenting the Story of Convict Transportation in Three Pacific Islands
Apinya Baggelaa (Thailand and Australia)
Authenticity versus Commodification: Atrocity Heritage Tourism at ‘Death Railway’ of the Bridge over the River Kwai and its Associations, Thailand
Tom McGrath (USA)
Can Authenticity and Heritage Tourism Co-exist at Kalapaupa National Historic Park?
12:30 pm
Lunch provided, question-and-answer session in the Poster Room
1:45 pm
Presentations at the Golden Gate Club, Presidio
Economic Pressures on Communities Related to Tourism
Donovan Rypkema (USA)
Beyond Heritage Tourism: The Other Preservation Economics
Shu-Yi Wang (USA)
From a Han Cultural City to a World Heritage Site – Walled City of Pingyao
Nicholas Franco (USA)
The Cultural Value of La Cuesta Encantada and the Economic Impact of Hearst Castle
3:30 pm
3:45 pm
Presentations at the Golden Gate Club, Presidio
Graham Brooks
(Australia, ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Committee)
Ron Von Oers
(UNESCO World Heritage Center)
Invitation to the 11th World Heritage USA International Symposium (Spring 2008)
Invitation to the 16th ICOMOS General Assembly in Quebec (Fall 2008)
6:30 pm
8:00 pm Farewell Reception
(buses depart from the Argonaut Hotel beginning at 6:00 pm)
$25 per registrant; $50 for all others
Haas-Lilienthal House (designed by Peter Schmidt)
2007 Franklin Street (between Washington & Jackson)
Hosted by the San Francisco Architectural Heritage Foundation and the
World Heritage USA International Exchange Program
In recognition of the upcoming (2008) 25th anniversary of the World Heritage USA International Exchange Program, we invite you to attend this farewell reception at the Haas-Lilienthal House. As featured on A&E’s America’s Castles’ “Castles by the Bay,” this exuberant Queen Anne-style Victorian was built in 1886. It is the only intact private home of the period that is open regularly as a museum, complete with authentic furniture and artifacts. The House as elaborate wooden gables, a circular corner tower and luxuriant ornamentation. At this farewell reception, volunteer docents will be available for questions throughout the House and to explain the Victorian architecture of the exterior. A display of photographs in the downstairs supper-room describes the history of the home and the family that lived here until 1972.
Since the World Heritage USA International Exchange Program was created in 1984, nearly 600 young preservation professionals and over 70 countries have participated in this program.  The program promotes understanding of international preservation policies, methods and techniques and enables interns to make professional contacts and form personal friendships that will ensure a continuing dialogue between countries.
Sunday, April 22
Post-Conference Tours (register separately by following the links)
Tour 1
(1 to 4 pm)
Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historic Park
(Note: pdf file)
This National Park was established in 2000 to tell the story of the millions of women and men who went to work across the country in support of the total war effort.
To make reservations, please contact Lucy Lawliss at 510-232-1544 or by email at lucy_lawliss@nps.gov no later than Friday, April 13, 2007.  The tour is limited to 20 people.
Tour 2
(12:30 to
4 pm)
Hearst Castle, California State Parks
(Note: pdf file)
This private tour will encompass the grounds, main house, guest houses, and two pools of the historic estate of William Randolph Hearst, located on the Central Coast in San Simeon, California.
To reserve a place on this tour, please call Dan Eller in the Public Relations Office at 805-927-2074 or by email at deller@hearstcastle.com by Friday, April 20, 2007. The tour is limited to 50 people.
The list of speakers below includes those who were selected from the numerous abstracts received, however the program of speakers should be considered preliminary and is subject to change. Biographies for each speaker will be posted soon.
Arellano, Alexandra (Canada)
Choquequirao or the “other” Machu Picchu: Towards Sustainable Nature/Heritage Based Tourism Developments
Peru is known for its extremely diverse cultural and natural heritage. The tourism boom of the 1990s led to a fast and chaotic development of its infrastructures and apparently insurmountable environmental and logistical problems are now beginning to appear. Rapid tourism growth in Machu Picchu (the most visited Peruvian destination) has often been on the verge of being declared an endangered site by UNESCO. Despite such warnings, international tourism continues to increase by searching for, and exploiting, more previously undeveloped pristine areas and archaeological treasures.
This paper is about a recently “re-discovered” natural and archaeological park called Choquequirao which has similarities to Machu Picchu. This newly promoted tourism destination is “branded” as a mysterious citadel that remains unmapped and is situated in “one of the least explored areas on Earth.” Located in Cuzco (Peruvian South Andes) at 3033 meters above sea level, this Inca citadel is known as “the other Machu Picchu.” A Peruvian state organization is currently implementing the first stage of a Master Plan for the development of the park that is limited to biodiversity inventories, archaeological research, and tourist infrastructures focusing on the site’s accessibility. Despite the fact that the Master Plan mentions and uses such concepts as “sustainability” and “responsible tourism,” no vision of long-term preservation and protection from mass tourism is contemplated beyond the development of these basic facilities. This paper presents these two cases in a comparative perspective and argues that Choquequirao must develop an adequate and appropriate ecotourism management strategy that does not repeat the same mistakes as Machu Picchu.
Baggelaar, Apinya (Thailand)
Authenticity versus Commidification: Atrocity Heritage Tourism at “Death Railway” of the Bridge Over the River Kwai and Its Associations, Thailand
The “Death Railway” of the Bridge over the River Kwai and its Associations is a good example of fast-growing heritage tourism. As a world-famous bridge and rail line that was built by prisoners of war during the Second World War under the Japanese Imperial Military, the numbers of lives that perished and the atrocities that had occurred during the construction has attracted visitors to the place. Eleven million international tourists arrive in Thailand annually, five million visit to the Kanchanaburi where the sites are located and, combined with local tourists, the number of visitors rises over 15 million per year.  The most visited places are the Bridge, the War Cemetery, war museums, and a ride on the original train across the Bridge and through the jungle where the rails were laid by the prisoners of war.
Since more than 20 years, the sites have been increasing in popularity as a tourism product. From a lack of good understanding of heritage management, it is seductively easy to destroy any connection of the social contexts in which heritage is nevertheless, always and inevitably, embedded. There certainly is something to these charges: the commodification of social and cultural experience commonly dislocates it from its living users and inhabitants, without regard to the interests of living populations. Another main reason is an economic interest that always plans an important role in heritage management in Thailand. A tourist’s commodification of the places has overruled its authenticity. This paper will present the problem and suggest means to relocate the authenticity and a “sense of place” back to the heritage.
Brooks, Graham
Cultural Tourism in Asia and the Pacific Rim:  Trends and Challenges
Domestic and international tourism in Asia and the Pacific Rim are in an explosive growth phase.  People throughout the region are increasingly wealthy and mobile, while visitors from the US, Australia and Europe continue to arrive in huge numbers.  Travel is now a source of both education and recreation, while religious tourism and pilgrimage travel are major activities.  Discount airline travel in Asia is now a reality and will grow exponentially in the next few years.  The Borobudur World Heritage Site in Indonesia welcomes nearly 2.5 million visitors per annum, of which only about 150,000 are international arrivals.
Although the cultural landscapes of Asia and the Pacific Rim are rich and diversified, a great deal of recent tourism growth has focussed on the major cultural heritage sites and historic towns that are inscribed on the World Heritage List.  Other heritage places and settlements are just beginning to realise their potential to attract tourism.  Increased tourism places enormous pressures on the heritage resources of the region, creating challenges for both the conservation and tourism industries to preserve and manage these shared resources.
This 2007 World Heritage USA Conference in San Francisco examines the balance between Culture, Conservation and Economic Development.  The tourism industry typically regards heritage as a major attraction and source of economic wealth, while the conservation community believes cultural heritage forms an important and irreplaceable foundation for on-going human development, something that must be preserved and managed for future generations.  In fact the conservation community holds the keys to the long term sustainability of a major part of the world’s tourism assets.  Conservation is vital, but it must not take place in isolation.  Conservation or Preservation must include communicating the significance of heritage places to visitors and local people, gaining their support for long term, sustainable conservation.
The two greatest challenges facing the management of tourism at heritage sites in the Asia Pacific region are:
1- Protecting the Integrity and Values of Heritage Places
2- Enhancing the Quality of Life of Local Communities
As the introductory presentation for the Conference, this paper will review a wide range of activities and programmes that have been developed over recent years in Asia and the Pacific.  There are many actors and many issues.  Subsequent papers will examine specific places, challenges and opportunities.  As a whole the conference will draw together diverse experiences and provide delegates with material that can be applied in their own professional circumstances.
While this World Heritage USA Conference examines the situation in Asia and the Pacific Rim, most of the problems, challenges and outcomes are universal in their application.  One of the great advantages of such a conference is its role in building international best practice in the field of tourism management at places of heritage significance throughout the world.
Buckley, Kristal, and Anita Smith (Australia)
Presenting the Story of Convict Transportation in Three Pacific Islands
Both Britain and France established substantial penal settlements in the south Pacific during the late 18th and 19th centuries. This was one component of a set of larger patterns of movement of labour through forced and unforced migrations within and into the Pacific. While the transportation of convicts occurred in many parts of the world, the experience of Australia and the Pacific has some particular characteristics such as the relatively large and sustained nature of the transportation programs, and their inextricable relationship with the establishment of European colonies and the post-colonial nations of today.
This paper will compare the presentation of this history of forced migration in three Pacific Islands: Tasmania, Norfolk Island, and New Caledonia. In each of these cases, the island/peninsula landscape has been used to establish a complex system reflecting the philosophies of punishment and reform, subsistence and colonial exploitation of resources, and social hierarchy. In each of these places, the transportation of convicts to the South Pacific from Europe and its colonies has contributed to the heritage and contemporary identity of the present-day territory/nation.
However, despite this thread of shared history, its presentation to the world via the tourism industry varies considerably. The paper will examine some of the factors which contribute to these differences, including the historical and associative values of these complex landscapes, the degree to which the history is contested, the characteristics of the associated and “host” communities, the benefits for local communities, and the structure of the tourism market.
Chermayeff , Jane Clark (USA)
Preservation by Interpretation: A visitor-centered approach to protecting heritage sites
Jane Clark Chermayeff will present a comprehensive approach to preservation—one that employs interpretation to instill a sense of stewardship and advocacy among visitors.  As heritage sites become increasingly touristed, visitors’ needs and assumptions will have profound affects on the preservation and appreciation of physical and cultural resources. A comprehensive approach to preservation responds to this reality by incorporating scholarship, stakeholder input, evaluation, conservation, and the requirements and limitations of tourism into interpretive planning. As a result, planners increase the likelihood that visitors will feel more invested in the care and conservation of the sites they experience — producing sustainable benefits for the sites and local communities.
At the end of the panel sessions, Jane will moderate a discussion on the visitor experience and planning strategies for the future of heritage sites using Angkor Archeological Park, Cambodia, as a case study.  Visitor expectation and operational planning issues to be explored include: How will future changes in visitation affect stakeholders? How can short-term measures meet long-term concerns?
Franco, Nicholas (USA)
The Cultural Value of La Cuesta Encantada and the Economic Impact of Hearst Castle
The estate of William Randolph Hearst is the result of a nearly 30-year collaboration with architect Julia Morgan beginning in 1919. The estate served as a Mediterranean-style hilltop villa that showcased Hearst’s extensive collections. It also served as a center for Hearst’s business and financial empire related to the communications industry, the film industry, and politics.
Named La Cuesta Encantada during Hearst’s time, the site became known to the public as Hearst Castle. During its construction and operation, the site was a major employer for San Luis Obispo County. The Hearst Corporation donated the hilltop to California State Parks nearly 50 years ago. Since opening as a heritage tourism site in June 1958, Hearst Castle has become a major economic engine in San Luis Obispo’s tourist based economy.
Hearst Castle has approximately 700,000 visitors annually and is often visited for its “wow” factor. It is less recognized for its authenticity as a Country House of America’s Gilded Age with a world-class collection of art and textiles as well as a significant and extensive cultural landscape. This presentation will look at the challenges in operating a major regional tourist attraction while still preserving the cultural values that exist in the site, the setting, and the collection.
Jeffrey, R. Brooks (USA)
Convento or Invento: Issues of Authenticity and Heritage Tourism in Tucson, Arizona
Authenticity in preservation is an issue facing historic sites throughout the world, particularly when heritage tourism is relied on as a principal economic generator for a community or region. In Tucson, Arizona, the municipal government has embarked on an ambitious redevelopment project, called Rio Nuevo, whose goal is to revitalize Tucson’s urban core as distinct activity zones, including civic, arts and entertainment districts, a riparian river park, and a historic/cultural area representing the “birthplace” of Tucson. The centerpiece of the historic/cultural area is the reconstruction of the circa 1800 Mission San Agustin complex of gardens, granary, chapel, and a large, 2-story administrative building known as the Convento.
Years of archaeological investigation have generated a great deal of information, but none that reveals the site’s archaeological footprint, nor a complete picture of the exterior form or texture of the buildings. Professional preservationists argue that the proposed reconstruction of this site would create a false, disneylandesque sense of history; politicians and community residents are looking to heritage tourism as a key component in Tucson’s redevelopment plans. This paper will discuss the issues of authenticity and heritage tourism as exemplified in historic sites throughout the world and how these issues are being played out in Tucson, Arizona.
Joshi, Jharna, and Manoj Rajopakhyay (Nepal)
Sustainable Rural Tourism and Local Communities in Nepal
Cultural tourism, especially rural tourism in the South Asian countries is a growing attraction for international and domestic visitors seeking to experiment the simply way of life. This growing phenomenon is a bane and a blessing to the social structure and the economy of these rural communities, where there is a dearth of other economic activities. In today’s competitive global market, the tranquility of rural tourism offers an attraction that survives on its uniqueness and cultural identity, which makes its conservation critical.
The national economy of Nepal and the local community depend heavily on the foreign currency earned through tourism. Nepal offers many destinations that combine culture and nature in addition to adventure tourism. Most of these destinations developed a gained popularity through word of mouth. However, in the recent years there have been a handful of concerted efforts towards planned destination development and promotion, with national and international support.
This paper intends to assess critically the leading projects that have focused on heritage conservation as the main objective to promote destinations. The paper will explore in-depth the Bandipur Eco-Cultural Tourism Project funded by the European Commission in partnership with two European cities that have proven experience in sustainable tourism practices to share with Nepal. This project has taken a unique approach integrating architectural, cultural, and natural conservation, local capacity building training, and promotion in its overall tourism strategy for Bandipur that allows for growth and changes, yet protects the natural and cultural resources for the benefit of the local population.
Landorf, Chris (Australia)
Striking a Balance: Cultural Tourism and the Sustainable Management of Complex Heritage Sites
A reality of World Heritage listing for many sites is an increased pressure to form the basis of economic growth through tourism. This comes with associated issues of site degradation and loss of connection between local communities and their heritage. However, recent developments in the  World Heritage nomination and reporting process indicated a growing awareness of the need to better balance conservation with sustainable economic and social development. The issue of sustainable tourism is of particular concern to complex heritage sites such as cultural landscapes where significance is linked to intangible cultural heritage as much as it is to the built heritage.
In order to better understand the sustainability challenges facing complex heritage sites, this paper reports on the extent to which five heritage management plans address the issue of tourism. Literature drawn from the fields of strategic planning and tourism management describe two key themes impacting on sustainable practice–strategic planning and stakeholder participation. Content analysis has been used to determine the extent to which these principles have been integrated into the tourism management process at five World Heritage sites. The five sites are amongst the few on the World Heritage List that currently have comprehensive management plans in place. With the new UNESCO administrative and reporting requirements, these are likely to act as the model for management plans at other sites. It is therefore an opportune time to examine the extent to which they represent an appropriate model for the sustainable management of sites of heritage significance.
Liebs, Chester (USA and Japan)
Heritage Tourism and Sustainable Communities: Lessons from the Everyday Cultural Landscape of Japan
Addressing a major conference theme “how experiences in the Pacific Rim” relate to other regions of the world,” this presentation will explore another aspect of heritage tourism–in this case the opportunity to learn from Japan’s everyday cultural landscape and its many functioning, sustainable communities. From traditional shopping streets in Tokyo, to neighborhoods surrounding major cities, such places represent a relatively untapped resource for visitors to observe, for example, people living comfortably with density, the benefits of civil society, and the advantages of an all-encompassing public transportation network which makes possible a “car-optional” life.
Based on my over six years as a professor and Fulbright fellow studying Japan’s everyday landscape, this illustrated presentation will include a case study on the high degree of practical bicycle use in the country. While being abandoned for cars in nations such as China, bicycles are still a preferred mode of transport in Japan for shopping, commuting, making deliveries, policing, etc. Communities sometimes even provide bicycles free-of-charge for tourist explorations. Practical bicycling in Japan is the vascular system for nourishing sustainable neighborhoods and one of many valuable object lessons the country has to offer citizens, from auto-addicted countries, seeking to redensify sprawl-ravaged communities.
The upside to this type of heritage tourism, bringing valuable lessons back to one’s home country while giving encouragement to Japanese trying to preserve a “car-optional” life,, will also be discussed. So will a possible downside–the potential for commodification of what are now functioning, living, everyday places.
Lim, Jong Hyun (Republic of Korea)
Use of Ancient Memory as a Strategic Tool for Cultural Tourism
Gyeongju Historic Area, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000, is the most famous tourist site in the Republic of Korea. It contains a remarkable concentration of outstanding examples of Korean Buddhist art, in the form of sculptures, pagodas, the remains of temples, and giant tombs from the Silla dynasty (7th through 10th centuries CE). Recently, the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, the government of Northern Gyeongsang province, and the municipality of Gyeongju city initiated a presumptive reconstruction project of Hwangryong temple’s pagoda., which when it stood was one of the highest (approximately 80 meters in height) wooden pagodas in East Asian history. The basis purposes of the project are to inspire national pride through the lost history of ancient Korea, to use cultural property as an economic tool for domestic and international tourism, and to establish the identify of Gyeongju as an impressive historic capital within East Asian history. However, at several workshops and an international symposium held in 2006, various criticisms emerged from scholars and the public, including:
Why should the pagoda be reconstructed on the site without clear historic evidence? Is it for tourism or a patriotic sense of superiority?
Is the understanding of historical analysis of traditional timber pagodas at the proper level historically, technically, and even economically for the local community?
With these questions in mind, this paper will address how the presumptive reconstruction of Hwangryong temple’s wooden pagoda in Gyeongju Historic Area could influence local society, and what interpretative management tools can be developed to assess the potential value of the site without losing its ‘authenticity’ and sense of place.
McGrath, Tom (USA)
Can Authenticity and Heritage Tourism Co-Exist at Kalapaupa National Historic Park?
The history of leprosy in Hawaii is a story of some 8,000 persons taken from their families and exiled to what was often referred to as a “living tomb.” The Kalaupapa Park was established on December 22, 1980 to stand as a monument to man’s ability to conquer, both physically and spiritually, not only a disease but man’s inhumanity to man. Still in its formative years, the park is dedicated to: preserving the memories and experiences of the past, providing a well-maintained community to ensure that the last remaining forty-six residents may live out their lives in their homes, and to the education of present and future generations with regard to a disease that has been shrouded in fear and ignorance for centuries.
Is the National Park Service using innovative stewardship techniques to preserve the setting and landscape in their full authenticity at Kalaupapa? Is ephemeral evidence preserved for future enquires? What conservation skills are necessary to deal with this site of painful memory and preserve evidence of historical context? Major preservation work completed over the past four years by the Historic Preservation Training Center will illustrate lessons learned to define what indicators or analytical tools can be developed to assess the potential of sites of hurtful memory in the Pacific Rim for the appropriateness for tourism development without sacrificing authenticity and their spirit of place.
Michael, Vincent (USA)
Weishan Heritage Valley: Pre-Tourism Preservation and Conservation Planning in Yunnan, China
In 1999, the US China Arts Exchange at Columbia University and Chicago’s Openlands Project partnered with Government officials in Yunnan province to create the Weishan Heritage Valley, the first heritage area in China. Centered on the historic Southern Silk Road town of  Weishan, birthplace of the 7th-century Nanzhao Empire and one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse regions of  China, the Heritage Valley combines natural and cultural preservation in an attempt to develop sustainable tourism, unlike nearby Dali or the World Heritage town of Lijiang, where tourism development has proceeded with a destructive rapidity.
Weishan officials have created a series of preservation and urban development regulations to prevent overdevelopment of Weishan’s 13th-century old town, safeguard the 22 Taoist and Buddhist temples on adjacent Weibao mountain, and promote eco-friendly tourism in Gaoligongshan National Park. The presentation will focus on historic preservation in the old town. Graduate students in historic preservation have worked in Weishan during study trips in 2004 and 2006, preparing a plan for a Visitors Center on a Ming-era temple documenting a dozen traditional courtyard houses in the old town.
The presentation will emphasize how the support of international experts has reaffirmed the town’s commitment to preservation values, in contrast to Lijiang and other sites overwhelmed by tourism. While the danger of commercial overdevelopment cannot be ruled out, such overdevelopment would require a policy change, thanks to the work of the Weishan Heritage Valley partnerships over the last seven years.
Rypkema, Donovan (USA)
Beyond Heritage Tourism: The Other Preservation Economics
Heritage tourism is a growing industry internationally that can have a profound and positive impact on local economics. The discussion of heritage tourism is certainly important including measuring its positive impacts and creating responses to mitigate its potentially negative effects. But too often is “heritage tourism” the default answer to the question “Are there any positive economic impacts of historic preservation?”
Research both in the United States and increasingly around the world has begun to demonstrate numerous additional (and perhaps more sustainable) answers to that question. These include direct impacts such as job creation, small business incubation, and center city revitalization. But also emerging are indirect economic impacts including the role of heritage buildings in a comprehensive sustainable development strategy, housing, mitigation of sprawl, and as a central element in taking advantage of economic globalization while mitigating cultural globalization.
This paper will identify the other economic impact measurements with examples of analysis from North America, Australia, Europe, and Asia.
Soon, Cheryl (USA)
The Essence of Place: Achieving Harmony for Economic Development and Tourism in a Heritage and Cultural Landscape
Place theory exists at the intersection of economic growth and sustainability; of heritage and tourism. How do special places, including historic and cultural landscapes attractive to travelers, protect their character from modern day change?
Hanalei District is an example of a cultural landscape. Vernacular use and man-made structures interact with the natural setting, and this relationship creates the essence of the place. Marks of human habitation span several centuries including Polynesian settlement; missionary period; Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, Filipino, Korean and Spanish villages formed to fish, ranch and work the sugar cane, coffee, and taro fields important to the economy of the area.
This rich cultural and heritage area boasts eight buildings and structures and one district on the National Register. The Hanalei River was designated one of fourteen National Heritage Rivers. The single winding road along the coast, Kuhio Highway, was placed on the National Register in 2004. With this designation can an acknowledgment that proper management was necessary. Tension over how to properly manage the road had a long history. Community interests and preservationists wanted to keep the existing character, its one-lane bridges, wooden guardrails and no shoulders or lighting. Transportation officials wanted to bring the road up to “current standards.”
Polarized interests, tired of battling, sat down to understand each other in a process called “Context Sensitive Design.” Concerns over liability and safety were reconciled with values of respect for the land and place. Connection to the land became the basis for management. The CSD process and resulting plan serve as a powerful case study applicable to management in other heritage and tourism corridors.
Wang, Shu-Yi (USA)
From a Han Cultural City to a World Heritage Site
The development of heritage tourism facilitates urban conservation of an historical city because of its economic value that tourism generates, especially in developing or less developing countries. However, the balance between the local and the global is usually a challenge to most of the historical cities.
As the original birthplace of the draft bank system in China, the ancient city of Pingyao was founded around 1368 during the late Ming Dynasty and is the existing old city built according to the traditional ritual canoes. Because of its historical significance and architectural integrity, the walled city of Pingyao was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1997. This recognition has increased Pingyao’s worldwide reputation and brought the chance for transformation to its social, cultural, financial, and physical environment.
In order to maximize the economic value of the site and to receive attention from domestic and international tourism, the government has developed the city into a living museum by way of restoring the city back to its original plan, such as city wall, temples, escort companies and financial banks from the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The development of heritage tourism has helped preserve the rich cultural essences, keeping cities alive and viable, and supplementing these cities’ lack of financial support from the central government.
This suggests that the conservation of a living heritage site does not have to be separated from its cultural sustainability and from satisfying the curiosity of the tourist industry. Finding a balance point between tourism-driven displays and the authenticity of daily/local history is the lesson that the ancient town of Pingyao is learning right now.
Arellano, Alexandra (Canada)
Choquequirao or the “other” Machu Picchu: Towards Sustainable Nature/Heritage Based Tourism Developments
Baggelaar, Apinya (Thailand)
Authenticity versus Commidification: Atrocity Heritage Tourism at “Death Railway” of the Bridge Over the River Kwai and Its Associations, Thailand
Apinya Baggelaar is currently a PhD candidate in Architectural Heritage Management and Tourism at Silpakorn University/Thailand and Deakin University/Australia.  Ms. Baggelaar has a BA in Anthropology from Silpakorn University and a MA in Museology from Reinwardt Academia, University of Amsterdam.
Brooks, Graham
Cultural Tourism in Asia and the Pacific Rim:  Trends and Challenges
Graham is an Architect with post graduate qualifications in heritage conservation.  He is Managing Director of a professional Heritage Management practice based in Sydney, Australia.  He has worked in the field for 35 years and has lectured widely to business, heritage, professional and student groups on heritage management, conservation practice, preparing heritage sites for cultural tourism and the methodologies of heritage asset management, particularly in Asia.
Graham was the principle author of the ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Charter (1999) and the UNWTO Guidebook for Tourism Congestion Management at Natural and Cultural Sites (2005).
Graham is a member of international expert advisory panels for ICOMOS, UNESCO, UN World Tourism Organisation, the European Commission, the Archaeological Survey of India, the UNESCO World Heritage Office and the Getty Conservation Institute, based in Los Angeles.
Buckley, Kristal, and Anita Smith (Australia)
Presenting the Story of Convict Transportation in Three Pacific Islands
Ms. Buckley is an archaeologist and heritage consultant in private practice based in Melbourne, Australia. She is a Vice-President of ICOMOS, Chair of Australia’s National Cultural Heritage Forum, and a member of the Heritage Council of Victoria. She is also Chair of the Conservation Advisory Committee for the Port Arthur Historic Site and has conducted consultancies which explore the contemporary community heritage values of both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cultural heritage places in Australia.
Dr. Anita Smith is an archaeologist with research interests in the history and heritage management in the Pacific Islands and Australia. She is an Honorary Fellow with the Cultural Heritage Centre for Asia & the Pacific at Melbourne’s Deakin University and Special Projects Officer for Heritage Victoria. She has conducted a number of cultural heritage projects in the Pacific Islands for UNESCO. Dr. Smith is a member of the Executive Committee of Australia ICOMOS and convenor of its World Heritage Reference Group.
Chermayeff , Jane Clark (USA)
Preservation by Interpretation: A visitor-centered approach to protecting heritage sites
Jane Clark Chermayeff founded her firm to focus on visitor-centered exhibitions and learning environments that highlight the intersection of history and nature.  An educator and exhibition developer, Jane held positions at the Smithsonian Institution’s Traveling Exhibition Service, the National Endowment for the Arts, and the Smithsonian’s Design Museum, where she was the first Director of Education.  With Jane Clark Chermayeff & Associates LLC, she has developed noted expertise in interpreting heritage sites, parks, and nature centers in Europe, Asia, and throughout the United States and Puerto Rico.
Jane was awarded the Japan Foundation Fellowship and the Doing Art Together Award for her contributions to arts education in New York City.  An advisor to the Hudson River Foundation, the Exploratorium, the Laurance S. Rockefeller Preserve, and the New York State Council on the Arts, she sits on the boards of the New York Studio School, the School Art League of New York, and Parks & Trails New York.  Jane lectures frequently on interpreting cultural landscapes and has written, co-authored, and edited articles and books, including “Working at Play: Informal Science Education on Museum Playgrounds,” The Design Necessity, the Neighborhood Conservation Source Book, and the original Kids Culture Catalogue.
Franco, Nicholas (USA)
The Cultural Value of La Cuesta Encantada and the Economic Impact of Hearst Castle
Nick Franco is the Superintendent of the San Luis Obispo Coast District of California State Parks.  His district encompasses 11 parks including Hearst Castle, a National Historic Landmark.  Hearst Castle is the former estate of William Randolph Hearst and was designed by noted architect Julia Morgan.  Nick has worked for California State Parks for more than 20 years, beginning his career as a State Park Ranger at Will Rogers State Historic Park in Pacific Palisades.  He has previously worked in many historic sites including five years as the Superintendent of Angel Island State Park.
He worked closely with the many partners in the San Francisco Bay area to move forward the project to restore the U. S. Immigration Station located on Angel Island, including work to complete a Cultural Landscape Report and Historic Structure Reports.  He is currently involved in the development of a Cultural Landscape Report for Hearst Castle and working to develop a new interpretive framework for tours of Hearst Castle in preparation for the site’s June 2008 50th anniversary of tours to the public.
Jeffrey, R. Brooks (USA)
Convento or Invento: Issues of Authenticity and Heritage Tourism in Tucson, Arizona
R. Brooks Jeffery is Associate Dean of the College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, University of Arizona and Coordinator of its multi-disciplinary graduate program in Preservation Studies. Jeffery has spent his career documenting, interpreting and disseminating the significance of built environments throughout the world, including the Middle East, Spain, Latin America and the U.S. Southwest. His publications include Cross-Cultural Vernacular Landscapes of Southern Arizona (Vernacular Architecture Forum, 2005, co-edited with Laura Hollengreen),  “From Azulejos to Zaguanes:  The Islamic Legacy in the Built Environment of Hispano-America” (Journal of the Southwest, Spring/Summer 2003), A Guide to Tucson Architecture (University of Arizona Press, 2002, with Anne M. Nequette), Joesler & Murphey:  An Architectural Legacy for Tucson (City of Tucson, 1994) and Yemen:  A Culture of Builders (American Architectural Foundation, 1989).
Jeffery has been a principal investigator on numerous grants and contracts from local, regional and national agencies, totaling over $800,000, and in 2006 was given the “Excellence in Resource Stewardship” award from the National Park Service for his students’ work creating design guidelines at Petrified Forest National Monument.  In addition to his administration, teaching and research responsibilities, Jeffery collaborates with governmental and civic agencies on preservation issues locally, regionally, and nationally while serving as a board member on the University of Arizona Historic Preservation Advisory Committee, Tucson Community Design Academy, Arizona Historic Sites Review Committee, and the Vernacular Architecture Forum.  He is a member of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, World Heritage USA, and associate member of the American Institute of Architects and the American Society of Landscape Architects.
Joshi, Jharna, and Manoj Rajopakhyay (Nepal)
Sustainable Rural Tourism and Local Communities in Nepal
Landorf, Chris (Australia)
Striking a Balance: Cultural Tourism and the Sustainable Management of Complex Heritage Sites
Chris Landorf is a registered architect, holds postgraduate qualifications in business management and facility management, and is currently  completing a PhD on the sustainable management of complex heritage sites (due for completion in 2007). Her significant academic contribution to date has been through the development of an innovative research program focused on the identification of design parameters that impact on built environment usability and incorporation of this understanding into the design briefing process. This work has led to successful ARC Linkage-Project and Australian Housing Urban Research Institute grants in  the field of aged care design and school canteen design.
A further area of research is the sustainable management of the built environment and specifically complex heritage sites and urban environments. Chris has been Chapter President and Council Member of the Royal Australian Institute of Architects, member of the Architects Board of South Australia, Chair of the Association of Architecture Schools of  Australasia, and a member of numerous National Course Recognition and  Accreditation Panels. She was project architect for the Broken Hill Line of Lode Miner*s Memorial and Visitors Centre, which received the 2001 Royal Australian Institute of Architects Walter Burley Griffin Award for  Urban Design.
Liebs, Chester (USA and Japan)
Heritage Tourism and Sustainable Communities: Lessons from the Everyday Cultural Landscape of Japan
Chester Liebs  is Fulbright Visiting Professor at the University of Tokyo, also Adjunct Professor of Historic Professor of Historic Preservation and Regionalism, University of New Mexico, and Professor Emeritus and founder of the Historic Preservation Program, University of Vermont.
Lim, Jong Hyun (Republic of Korea)
Use of Ancient Memory as a Strategic Tool for Cultural Tourism
After receiving a BS in Architecture Design, an M.Arch (2000) in Architectural History & Planning (2002) at Sung Kyun Kwan University (Republic of Korea), Lim, Jong Hyun completed his M.S. degree in Historic Preservation (2005) at the University of Pennsylvania (U.S) and got an Anthony Nicholas Brandy Garvan Award for an Outstanding Thesis with a masters dissertation research of ‘Archaeological Site Management and Planning’. He experienced various conservation field projects as an intern in GSA (General Services Administration), NPS (National Park Service) and GCI (Getty Conservation Institute). Currently, he is working as an associate researcher with the Building Environmental Research Institute of Sung Kyun Kwan University to carry out a conservation project for a renewal of historic township in Korea.
His research interests include documentation, interpretation and assessment of built heritage. He is also planning to carry out a comparative research of ‘Urban Renewal in Historic Cities’ both in East Asia and in Europe for a potential Ph.D. study. He is recently involved in two publication projects: an English Textbook concerning “History of Korean Architecture” with Korea Foundation as an editor and chief translator, and “Documentation Tools: Illustrated Examples for Conservation” with Getty Conservation Institute as a graduate intern.
McGrath, Tom (USA)
Can Authenticity and Heritage Tourism Co-Exist at Kalapaupa National Historic Park?
H. Thomas McGrath Jr., Superintendent of the Historic Preservation Training Center, has had over twenty-nine years of historic preservation experience with the National Park Service. Mr. McGrath has previously served NPS tours of duty at the Denver Service Center, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Office.  He is a registered architect in Maryland, Colorado and California and holds a National Council of Architectural Registration Boards Certificate issued in Washington, DC.
Tom, his wife and sons live in their historic home, Holly Hill, in Severna Park, Maryland. A 1972 Fine Arts major graduate of Middlebury College, he received a Master of Architecture Degree from the University of Colorado in 1976.  In 1994, Mr. McGrath successfully completed the Office of Personnel Management – Executive Development Program. He received the Department of the Interior Meritorious Service Award in December 2000. Previous awards from the Maryland Historical Trust, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and the Advisory Council for Historic Preservation have recognized Mr. McGrath’s historic preservation project work.  Tom’s career accomplishments were recognized by his induction to Fellowship in both the Association for Preservation Technology in 2004 and the American Institute of Architects in 2005. He is a frequent lecturer and instructor on historic preservation, craft training, and cultural resource maintenance topics.
Michael, Vincent (USA)
Weishan Heritage Valley: Pre-Tourism Preservation and Conservation Planning in Yunnan, China
VINCENT L. MICHAEL is the John H. Bryan Chair in Historic Preservation at The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, where he has been Director of the Historic Preservation Program since 1996.  He is a Trustee of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, Chair Emeritus of the National Council for Preservation Education, and President of the Site Council for the Gaylord Building, a National Trust property and National Historic Landmark.  He is Secretary of Landmarks Illinois and has served on the Illinois Historic Sites Advisory Council and the Oak Park Historic Preservation Commission.
A preservationist since 1983, Vincent worked on the Illinois & Michigan Canal National Heritage Corridor for 5 years and for the Landmarks Preservation Council of Illinois for 8 years.  He has led tours of architecture, art, geography, literature, natural and industrial history for 23 years, including trips to Ireland, Southeast Asia, and China, where he works on the preservation of the Weishan Heritage Valley in Yunnan.  He recently advised preservation educators in the Ukraine at the invitation of the United States Embassy and is working with the American Institute of Architects on a similar initiative.
Vincent authored two videos on Chicago architecture, wrote for Michelin Travel Publications and has contributed to Design Issues, Future Anterior, The Encyclopedia of Chicago and has a blog at Fnewsmagazine.  Vincent received a Trustee’s Award from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts for his doctorate, and has written a book on Prairie School architect Francis Barry Byrne.
Rypkema, Donovan (USA)
Beyond Heritage Tourism: The Other Preservation Economics
Soon, Cheryl (USA)
The Essence of Place: Achieving Harmony for Economic Development and Tourism in a Heritage and Cultural Landscape
Cheryl Soon has practiced and published articles on the importance of place, historic preservation, community building and the relation to tourism. She was named a Fellow in the American Institute of City Planners in 2004 and is a member of Lambda Alpha International Economic Society and Historic Hawaii Foundation. Cheryl has a Masters degree in City Planning from Harvard University.
Cheryl  held public positions in Hawaii and Massachusetts, serving as Director of Transportation and Director of Planning in Honolulu from 1994-2004. During that time she helped prepare and implement a new generation of Development Plans focusing on sustainability, preservation and smart growth principles. She assisted with revitalization efforts in Waikiki and with public land purchases to preserve legacy lands in the islands.
Cheryl has worked extensively in the field of transportation, both highways and rail. As Vice President of Frederic R. Harris from 1990-4 she worked on new investment projects for Puerto Rico, New York & New Jersey Port Authority, Boston and Honolulu. She also worked on the high speed rail project for the Northeast Corridor.
Since leaving government, Cheryl became Senior Vice President for Corporate Development of Marathon Group and is Chief Operating Officer of one of their subsidiaries.
Cheryl is completing work on a Ph.D. in City Planning from the University of Hawaii-Manoa. Her dissertation topic is “Addressing Risk and Uncertainty in Megaprojects.”
Her paper for the USICMOS conference generated from work to preserve the cultural landscape of Hanalei, Kauai, an interest which dates back twenty five years.
Van Oers, Ron (France, UNESCO World Heritage Centre)
Ron Van Oers was trained at Delft University of Technology (the Netherlands) as an urban planner (MSc) with additional specialization in conservation management (MTD). In 2000 he received his doctorate (PhD) on a research into the principles of Dutch Colonial Town Planning between 1600 – 1800 (published in book form). During his PhD-research he was Assistant Course Director for the international Master of Science programme Renewal and Redesign of City Areas at the Faculty of Architecture in Delft.
Since his PhD completion, he has worked full-time in UNESCO’s World Heritage Centre in Paris. In his capacity as Chief of Unit ad interim for Latin America and the Caribbean (from 2003 to 2005), he was responsible for the implementation of the 1972 World Heritage Convention in this region, advising national Governments, local communities and NGO’s in overall strategy, as well as site-specific projects, including the development of the ‘Caribbean Action Plan in World Heritage’ in 2004, with related sub-regional capacity building programme.
Currently he is Programme Specialist at the Centre, where he coordinates three thematic programmes: the World Heritage Cities Programme, the Programme on Modern Heritage, and the Programme for Small Island Developing States. Next to this, he manages the US$ 2 million Netherlands Funds-in-Trust at UNESCO. He still holds a position as Research Fellow at Delft University, and within ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites) he is Voting Member for the Netherlands in the International Scientific Committee on Cultural Routes.
Wang, Shu-Yi (USA)
From a Han Cultural City to a World Heritage Site
Ms. Wang is currently a Ph.D. candidate in the Design and Planning Program at the University of Colorado, School of Architecture and Planning. She has been working in the field of historic preservation in Taiwan since getting my Master’s degree in 1993.  Most of her projects have involved community-based preservation of historic districts.  While working in the field of historic preservation, she realized the importance of urban conservation to historical cities in developing countries if they are to continue their intrinsic culture.  In addition to working on preservation projects, Ms. Wang also taught landscape design studio for five years at the landscape architecture department in Chung-Hua University, Taiwan.  This enforces her enthusiasm for pursuing a higher degree to teach and to research.
Most of her research is related to historical urban landscapes.  The influence of morphological process in social and spatial development on a historical environment is the core of my research.  Many historical cities have disappeared gradually under the influence of economic development.  Currently, tourism development is the most extreme form of economic development experienced by most heritage cities in Asia.  This is the present focus of her dissertation.